Adrian Raine continually overturns assumptions about causes and cures for violent criminal behavior. His globe-spanning research has revealed previously unrecognized risk factors in violent offenders’ brains, genes, physiology, and pre-natal and early life nutritional status. Within that data, Raine sees not biological determinism but grounds for hope in taking a public health approach to the global problem of criminal violence.
President of the Academy of Experimental Criminology and one of the founders of the new field of neurocriminology, Raine believes that countless lives and dollars lost to criminal violence could be saved by emphasizing prevention over punishment and rehabilitation over retribution. His 2013 book, The Anatomy of Violence: The Biological Roots of Crime, offers a vivid tour of research on the biological origins of violent criminal behavior and shares evidence-based prevention approaches. Translated into six languages soon after publication, his book explores ethically and legally challenging considerations for screening, prevention, rehabilitation and criminal justice if violent crime is considered a treatable clinical disorder.
Raine’s paradigm-shifting discoveries include the first brain imaging study of murderers and the earliest documentation of a structural brain abnormality in criminal offenders. His early research challenged criminologists to look beyond social and environmental factors to assess biological influences on violent behavior, as well. Raine’s early focus on the nature side of the nature-nurture equation, once vilified, is now supported by hundreds of studies on its equivalent impact. A fellow of the American Psychological Society, Raine publishes in Nature Reviews Neuroscience, JAMA Psychiatry, Criminology, International Journal of Epidemiology and Human Brain Mapping.
An award-winning teacher and dynamic mentor, Raine engages many undergraduates in his research in the city of Philadelphia on the benefits of enhanced early childhood nutrition, exercise and cognitive stimulation. Together, they have amassed compelling evidence that the most effective, affordable way to reduce future crime is to invest in the early years of life, when a child’s brain is growing and developing.
• Biosocial risk factors for antisocial, violent, and psychopathic behavior
• Nutritional and cognitive treatment programs for aggressive behavior
• Reactive and proactive aggression
• Schizotypal personality
• Developmental psychopathology
• Brain imaging
• Behavioral and molecular genetics
The Anatomy of Violence: The Biological Roots of Crime, 2013
Crime and Schizophrenia: Causes and Cures, 2006
ACADEMIC WRITINGS (SELECTED)
Raine, A., Portnoy, J., Jianghong Liu, J., Mahoomed, T., and Hibbeln, J. (in press). Reduction in behavior problems with omega-3 supplementation in children aged 8-16 years: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel-group trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Glenn, A.L. and Raine, A. (2014) Neurocriminology: Implications for the punishment, prediction and prevention of criminal behavior. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 15 54-63.
Portnoy, J., Raine, A., Chen, F.R., Pardini, D., Loeber, R. and Jennings, R. (2014). Heart rate and antisocial behavior: The mediating role of impulsive sensation seeking. Criminology 52 292-311
Raine, A., Laufer, W. S., Yang, Y., Narr, K. L., Thompson. P. and Toga, A.W. (2012). Increased executive functioning, attention, and cortical thickness in white-collar criminals. Human Brain Mapping. 33, 2932-2940.
For a list of all of Raine's publications, view his CV.
INTERVIEWS + FEATURES (SELECTED)
"Calm Hearts, Bad Behavior," The New Yorker, August 2, 2014
"Natural Born Killers," The New York Times, June 21, 2013
"Adrian Raine Says He Can Predict If You'll Be A Criminal," Vice, June 5, 2013
"Criminologist Believes Violent Behavior is Biological," NPR Books, April 30, 2013 [podcast]
"Q+A: Criminologist Adrian Raine on the Biology of Violence," Time, April 23, 2013
"Secrets of the Criminal Mind," Scientific American, May 7, 2013
"Penn Professor's Book Inspires TV Show," The Daily Pennsylvanian, May 25, 2013
"Can Brain Scans Explain Crime," Washington Post, June 7, 2013
"This Cold-Blooded Murderer Could Help Prove There's A 'Killer Gene,'"Business Insider, June 4, 2013
"The Anatomy of Violence by Adrian Raine: Natural Born Killers?" NewStatesman, May 15, 2013
"The Anatomist of Crime," The Pennsylvania Gazette, October 28, 2013
"Criminal Minds Are Different From Yours, Brain Scans Reveal," Live Science, March 04, 2011
"Brain Abnormality May Cause Criminal Behavior," The Daily Pennsylvanian, March 17, 2011
"Criminal Minds," The Chronicle of Higher Education, June 12, 2011
"Q+A: Adrian Raine," Penn Current, March 27, 2008
"Markers For Crime Raise Thorny Questions," The Philadelphia Inquirer, May 1, 2013
"Crime and Violence: The Biology Behind Murder," CBS News, May 6, 2013
"A Killer's Brain: Scans Look for Clues to Violence," University of Pennsylvania, July 16, 2013
"The Biological Roots of Violence," Sanjay Gupta, May 2, 2013
"Why Do People Kill? Crime, Biology Explored in Book," CBS This Morning, May 1, 2013
"Execution," Penn Arts & Sciences, 60 Second Lecture Series, November 28, 2012